Network coding is a new research area that may have interesting applications in practical networking systems. With network coding, intermediate nodes may send out packets that are linear combinations of previously received information. There are two main benefits of this approach: potential throughput improvements and a high degree of robustness. Robustness translates into loss resilience and facilitates the design of simple distributed algorithms that perform well, even if decisions are based only on partial information. Here we explain what network coding does and how it does it. We also discuss the implications of theoretical results on network coding for realistic settings and show how network coding can be used in practice.
In particular, we show that Network Coding is practical in a P2P setting since it incurs little overhead, both in terms of CPU processing and I/O activity, and it results in smooth, fast downloads, and efficient server utilization. We also study the importance of topology construction algorithms in real scenarios and study the effect of peers behind NATs and firewalls, showing that the system is surprisingly robust to large number of unreachable peers. Finally, we present performance results related to verifying network encoded blocks on-the-fly using special security primitives called Secure-Random-Checksums.

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NFS^2 provides a mechanism for uniting NFS servers under a single namespace. It simplifies management of multiple NFS servers by providing access to all servers through a single namespace (no need for multiple client mount points), and by providing a transparent mechanism for the addition of new servers as the system grows. This system avoids distributed lock management, which has been a limiting factor in the scalability of cluster file systems. NFS^2 supports heterogeneous physical file systems within the single namespace, whereas other systems have relied on their ownproprietary physical file systems.

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A Web Hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own websites accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Webhosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center, called colocation.
1. Service scope
2. Hosting Reliability and Uptime
3. Types of hosting
4. Obtaining hosting

MoCap data compression by Model Based Indexing

Human Motion Capture (MoCap) data can be used for animation of virtual human-like characters in distributed virtual reality applications and networked games. MoCap data compressed using the standard MPEG-4 encoding pipeline comprising of predictive encoding (and/or DCT decorrelation), quantization, and arithmetic/Huffman encoding, entails significant power consumption for the purpose of decompression. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for compression of MoCap data, which is based on smart indexing of the MoCap data by exploiting structural information derived from the skeletal virtual human model. The indexing algorithm can be fine-controlled using three predefined quality control parameters (QCPs). We demonstrate how an efficient combination of the three QCPs results in a lower network bandwidth requirement and reduced power consumption for data decompression at the client end when compared to standard MPEG-4 compression. Since the proposed algorithm exploits structural information derived from the skeletal virtual human model, it is observed to result in virtual human animation of visually acceptable quality upon decompression.

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Inverse Multiplexing

As computer-based voice, video, and data services enter our lives in ever expanding ways, the computer networking technologies to deliver these services to end users are also evolving. The demand for large amounts of bandwidth over long distances is driving interest in ISDN, frame relay, switched multi megabit digital service (SMDS), ATM, satellite data communications systems, wireless communications systems, and other networking technologies. Making most of these services universally available requires either a new communications network infrastructure or significant modifications to the existing one. For example, PXM promises high bandwidth digital connections based on fixed-size data cells that can carry voice, video, and data. Universal ATM, however, also requires that today’s public switched telephone network replace its time division multiplexed (TDM) switching fabric with a new ATM switching fabric and enhanced interoffice trunk facilities. Because the value of the existing worldwide telephony infrastructure (switches, transmission systems, and embedded wiring) is estimated to be in the trillions of dollars, it is unlikely that it will be replaced entirely by ATM anytime soon. Although alternative transmission technologies will certainly be implemented over time to handle the growing demand for high-speed digital bandwidth, we must also make full use of the existing digital TDM infrastructure.

While originally conceived as a transport network for 64-kbis digitized voice, it is now possible to dial up point to point digital connections whose bandwidth ranges from 64 kbps to 3 Mb/s and beyond. Two significant enhancements to TDM networking have made this possible. The first is newly-developed software for digital TDM switches that allows dialed connections to exceed the original design channel rate of 56 or 64 kb, allowing carriers to offer dialed wideband services. The second is the use of specialized equipment that resides at the user’s premises to allow multiple independent digital connections to be “combined” to create a single, higher-speed end-to-end connection. This technique is known as inverse multiplexing, and the equipment that performs it is called an inverse multiplexer.

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Windows Mobile 6

Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Windows Mobile 6, formerly codenamed Crossbow, is the latest version of Windows Mobile platform and has been released on February 12, 2007 at the 3GSM World Congress 2007. It comes in three different versions: Windows Mobile 6 Standard for Smartphone, Windows Mobile 6 Professional for PDAs with phone functionality and Windows Mobile 6 Classic for plain PDAs without cellular radios. Windows Mobile 6, the next iteration of the Windows Mobile platform, brings new features and tools to Smartphone while still maintaining unrivaled flexibility, productivity and customization. Windows Mobile 6 also delivers a more powerful mobile communications experience to the user and genuine Outlook Mobile experience through rich HTML support. Windows Mobile 6 provides an increased level of productivity by helping users reach deeper into information available on their devices to places they can’t reach while at their desks. Windows Mobile 6 delivers increased device control and security, and greater operability with Exchange Server and other Microsoft assets so businesses can efficiently deploy, manage and help secure their mobile solutions.

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Blu-ray DVD

Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson). The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codec will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB.
Blu-ray is currently supported by more than 180 of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer, recording media, video game and music companies. The format also has broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format. In fact, seven of the eight major movie studios (Disney, Fox, Warner, Paramount, Sony, Lionsgate and MGM) have released movies in the Blu-ray format and five of them (Disney, Fox, Sony, Lionsgate and MGM) are releasing their movies exclusively in the Blu-ray format. Many studios have also announced that they will begin releasing new feature films on Blu-ray Disc day-and-date with DVD, as well as a continuous slate of catalog titles every month. The name Blu-ray Disc is derived from the blue-violet laser used to read and write this type of disc. Because of its shorter wavelength (405 nm), substantially more data can be stored on a Blu-ray Disc than on the DVD format, which uses a red (650 nm) laser. A single layer Blu-ray Disc can store 25 gigabytes (GB), over five times the size of a single layer DVD at 4.7 GB. A dual layer Blu-ray Disc can store 50 GB, almost 6 times the size of a dual layer DVD at 8.5 GB.Blu-ray Disc is similar to PDD, another optical disc format developed by Sony (which has been available since 2004) but offering higher data transfer speeds. PDD was not intended for home video use and was aimed at business data archiving and backup.

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A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control. In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. In contrast to the traditional sensor networks that are carefully planned and deployed to the predetermined positions, wireless sensor networks can be deployed in an ad-hoc manner. Of course, such deployment requires adequate communication protocols that are able to organize the network automatically, without the need for human intervention. Size and cost constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory, computational speed and bandwidth. In computer science and telecommunications, wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year. Various technologies can be used for communication between the different sensor nodes like Infrared, Radio Frequency (RF), Optical Communication (Laser) so here we discuss the scenario of use of Bluetooth in the Sensor Nodes. The main principles, applications and issues of Bluetooth based wireless sensor networks.